The human microbiome in evolution.
Davenport ER, Sanders JG, Song SJ, Amato KR, Clark AG, Knight R
BMC Biol. Dec 2017. doi: 10.1186/s12915-017-0454-7
COMMENT: The review covers the evolution of the human gut microbiome analyzing diversity differences within human populations and also comparing the evolution in other non-human primates and distant mammals.
As for human populations the authors describe the differences between Western and non-Western human populations in terms of level of gut microbiome diversity and the most abundant taxa in each kind of populations. These differences might be explained by the different diets in the different populations.
The authors describe as well possible mechanisms that might explain the existence of species-specific microbiomes and the effects of altering them.
They conclude remarking the utility of analyzing the human gut micrbiome from a phylogenetic point of view in the understanding of the human-microbiomes interaction
we propose that this broader phylogenetic perspective is useful for understanding the mechanisms underlying human–microbiome interaction