Old Instillations and New Implications in Bladder Cancer: The Urinary Microbiome and Intravesical BCG.
Bajic P, Wolfe AJ, Gupta GN
BJU Int. Jan 2019. doi: 10.1111/bju.14683
The authors summarize in this article the current state of the relations of urine and bladder microbiome and bladder cancer. From the established use of certain Mycobacterium strains in the treatment known as BCG immunotherapy and the relation of Lactobacillus iners with the patient response to such treatment to the implications of gut microbiome in the patient response to PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy.
To sum up the authors highlight the importance of the determination of bladder microbiome in this scenario not only as to be used as a biomarker but also as a modifiable actor involved in the response to immunotherapy.
it is clear that the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer may be enhanced by investigating the bladder microbiome further. The bladder microbiome has potential roles as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker, and as a modifiable milieu for optimizing response to local or systemic immunotherapy.