Mycobiome Profiles in Breast Milk from Healthy Women Depend on Mode of Delivery, Geographic Location, and Interaction with Bacteria.
Boix-Amorós A, Puente-Sánchez F, du Toit E, Linderborg KM, Zhang Y, Yang B, Salminen S, Isolauri E, Tamames J, Mira A, Collado MC
Appl Environ Microbiol. May 2019
COMMENT: The goal of this work was to determine whether the healthy human breast milk mycobiota depends on geographical location and delivery mode and what is the interaction between mycobiome and bacterial microbiome in human milk.
80 samples were analyzed for fungal taxonomic profiling using ITS1 amplicon sequencing. These were the main results about the milk mycobiome composition:
Basidiomycota and Ascomycota were found to be the dominant phyla, with Malassezia and Davidiella being the most prevalent genera across countries. A core formed by Malassezia, Davidiella, Sistotrema, and Penicillium was shared in the milk samples from the different origins, although specific shifts in mycobiome composition were associated with geographic location and delivery mode.
To study mycobiome-bacterial microbiome interplay in human milk the authors used coocurrence network analysis:
Cooccurrence network analysis of bacteria and fungi showed complex interactions that were influenced by geographical location, mode of delivery, maternal age, and pregestational body mass index