Gut microbiome and cancer immunotherapy.
Li W, Deng Y, Chu Q, Zhang P
Cancer Lett. Jan 2019
COMMENT: The authors discuss the relationships between the gut microbiome, the host immune system and cancer immunotherapy. The article summarizes what it is known about the role of the human microbiome in the development of certain kinds of cancers. It also summarizes the relations between the gut structure, immunity and microbiome and highlights the role the gut microbiome might play in the immunotherapy response and toxicity.
The era of microbiomes has quietly come, and pioneering reports of preclinical and clinical research on the role of microbiome in cancer have made gut microbiome a promising strategy for cancer treatment. (...) Furthermore, some challenges remain to be solved regarding how to regulate the gut microbiome to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. It is unclear that which specific composition of the gut microbiome is most conducive to promoting an anti-tumor immune response, and there are a variety of treatments that alter the microbiome, which requires careful testing in the setting of clinical trials. Only by fully understanding these interactions can we learn to optimally regulate the gut microbiome to enhance host anti-tumor immunity and potentially improve immune surveillance.