Group B Streptococcal Maternal Colonization and Neonatal Disease: Molecular Mechanisms and Preventative Approaches.
Patras KA, Nizet V
Front Pediatr. 2018. doi: 10.3389/fped.2018.00027
COMMENT: This review is centred on the colonization of newborn by Group B Streptococcus (GBS) during parturition from the maternal vaginal epithelium. This colonization can cause a serious infection in the vulnerable newborn. Bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions related to GBS are analyzed in this review.
Group B Streptococcus factors:
- GBS adhesins and biofilms
- β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin
- immune resistance factors
- sialic acid mimicry
- two-component transcriptional regulatory systems
- pathogen recognition
- cytokine responses
- vaginal mucosal and placental immunity
Finally, the rationale, efficacy, and potential unintended consequences of current universal recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis are considered, with updates on new developments toward a GBS vaccine or alternative approaches to reducing vaginal colonization.