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Group B Streptococcal Maternal Colonization and Neonatal Disease: Molecular Mechanisms and Preventative Approaches.

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PubMed ID: 29520354

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Patras KA, Nizet V

Front Pediatr. 2018. doi: 10.3389/fped.2018.00027

COMMENT: This review is centred on the colonization of newborn by Group B Streptococcus (GBS) during parturition from the maternal vaginal epithelium. This colonization can cause a serious infection in the vulnerable newborn.  Bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions related to GBS are analyzed in this review.

Group B Streptococcus factors:

  • GBS adhesins and biofilms
  • β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin
  • immune resistance factors
  • sialic acid mimicry
  • two-component transcriptional regulatory systems

Host factors:

  • pathogen recognition
  • cytokine responses
  • vaginal mucosal and placental immunity

Finally, the rationale, efficacy, and potential unintended consequences of current universal recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis are considered, with updates on new developments toward a GBS vaccine or alternative approaches to reducing vaginal colonization.

Contributor

Raquel Tobes